January 10, 2014

USPTO to Host Forum to Discuss Proposed Changes to Implement Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 - Title I The Hague Agreement

Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Commerce's United States Patent and 140px-US-PatentTrademarkOffice-Seal.svg.pngTrademark Office ("USPTO") recently announced that it will hold a public forum to discuss implementation of Title I of the Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 ("PLTIA"). The law, which serves as the implementing legislation for the Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs ("the Hague Agreement"), allows applicants to file a single international design application to acquire global protection. The forum will be held on Tuesday, January 14, 2014, at the USPTO campus in Alexandria, Virginia.

On November 29, 2013, the USPTO published a notice in the Federal Register seeking written comments on proposed changes to the rules of practice to implement Title I of the PLTIA.

The PLTIA and the proposed rules call for the following: standardizing formal requirements for international design applications; establishing the USPTO as an office through which international design applications may be filed; providing for substantive examination by the Office of international design applications that designate the United States; providing provisional rights for published international design applications that designate the United States; and setting the patent term for design patents at 15 years from the date of patent grant.

Further information about the proposed rules and upcoming forum may be found in the Federal Register Notice.

Practice Tip: This new law allows applicants to file a single international design application to pursue global protection.

January 9, 2014

Supreme Court's Holding in Gunn Requires Remand of Suit Alleging Malpractice in Patent Law

Indianapolis, Indiana - Citing the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in Gunn v. Minton, the court-bench-picture.jpgSouthern District of Indiana has remanded to the Marion Superior Court the legal malpractice lawsuit filed by the Indiana patent lawyer for Miller Veneers, Inc. The Defendants in the case are Indiana patent attorney Clifford W. Browning as well as two Indiana law firms, Krieg DeVault, LLP and Woodard, Emhardt, Moriarty, McNett & Henry, LLP.

In September 2012, Miller Veneers sued Clifford W. Browning; Krieg DeVault; and Woodard, Emhardt, Moriarty, McNett & Henry in Marion Superior Court alleging attorney malpractice regarding the acquisition of patents. Defendants removed the case to the Southern District of Indiana in October 2012, asserting federal question jurisdiction and 28 U.S.C. § 1338(a) (2008).

Although the court originally found that it had subject matter jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1338(a), the Supreme Court's recent decision in Gunn v. Minton led the court to reconsider the question of federal jurisdiction and to conclude that it did not, in fact, have subject matter jurisdiction over the suit, despite that the legal malpractice claims were based on underlying patent matters.

According to the new standard set forth in Gunn, federal jurisdiction exists over state law claims "if a federal issue is (1) necessarily raised, (2) actually disputed, (3) substantial, and (4) capable of resolution in federal court without disrupting the federal-state balance approved by Congress."

While the issues of federal law in this malpractice lawsuit were found to meet the first two prongs, the court held that they failed the second two prongs. Specifically, the third Gunn prong requires that the issue be "substantial," which requires the court "to look to the importance of the issue to the federal system as a whole." The court held that, as was the case in Gunn, this issue was not important to the federal system as a whole but merely to the parties. The court also held that the fourth prong had not met. It stated that, where issues such as malpractice are to be litigated, the balance is in favor of the states as they have "a special responsibility for maintaining standards among members of the licensed professions."

The court, upon determining that it lacked jurisdiction under the standard set forth in Gunn, remanded the matter to the Marion Superior Court.

Practice Tip: In Gunn, the Supreme Court held that a legal malpractice claim pertaining to the handling of a patent infringement case did not afford jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1338(a), stating, "We are comfortable concluding that state legal malpractice claims based on underlying patent matters will rarely, if ever, arise under federal patent law for purposes of § 1338(a)."

Continue reading "Supreme Court's Holding in Gunn Requires Remand of Suit Alleging Malpractice in Patent Law" »

January 8, 2014

Court Strikes Four Affirmative Defenses of BitTorrent Defendant

Fort Wayne, Indiana - District Magistrate Judge Roger B. Cosbey struck four affirmative defenses asserted by anonymous Defendant John Doe in Plaintiff Malibu Media's lawsuit in the Northern District of Indiana for copyright infringement.

Plaintiff Malibu Media, LLC, filed a copyright infringement action against Defendant John Doe. Defendant answered with ten affirmative defenses. Malibu Media sought to strike four of those defenses--laches, unclean hands, waiver, and estoppel; failure to mitigate damages; failure to join an indispensable party; and implied license, consent, and acquiescence.

Plaintiff first moved to strike Defendant's second affirmative defense--that "Plaintiff's claims are barred by the equitable doctrines of laches, unclean hands, waiver and estoppel"--as a bare conclusory allegation unsupported by any factual basis. The court ordered that defense stricken, stating "[m]erely stringing together a long list of legal defenses...does not do the job of apprising opposing counsel and this Court of the predicate for the claimed defense--which is after all the goal of notice pleading."

Plaintiff next moved to strike Defendant's fifth affirmative defense--that Plaintiff did not mitigate its damages. Malibu Media argued that this defense was improper because it had elected to pursue only statutory, rather than actual, damages. The court agreed that a copyright plaintiff's exclusive pursuit of statutory damages invalidates a failure-to-mitigate defense and struck this affirmative defense.

The court also struck Defendant's seventh affirmative defense, in which Defendant argued that Plaintiff had failed to join an indispensable party. Defendant asserted that he had not engaged in any infringing activity and Plaintiff has not joined those who had. The court held that Defendant's assertion that he had not engaged in any improper activity was not an affirmative defense but rather a mere denial of liability. It further held that Defendant was incorrect in asserting that joinder was necessary, holding that the court would be able to adjudicate the matter and "accord complete relief to Plaintiff regardless of whether any other allegedly infringing members were joined in the action.

Finally, Plaintiff asked that Defendant's eighth affirmative defense as be struck as conclusory. Defendant had asserted that "Plaintiff's claims are barred by Plaintiff's implied license, consent, and acquiescence to Defendant because Plaintiff authorized use via Bit Torrent [sic]." The court held that Defendant's Answer foreclosed the possibility of an implied license defense, as Defendant had denied downloading the copyrighted work. As such, Defendant could not also argue that he had downloaded the copyrighted work with a license.

Practice Tip #1: Generally speaking, motions to strike portions of pleadings are disfavored as they consume scarce judicial resources and may be used for dilatory purposes. Such motions will generally be denied unless the portion of the pleading at issue is prejudicial. When faced with a motion to strike affirmative defenses under Rule 12(f), Indiana federal courts apply a three-part test: (1) whether the matter is properly pled as an affirmative defense; (2) whether the affirmative defense complies with Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 8 and 9; and (3) whether the affirmative defense can withstand a Rule 12(b)(6) challenge. An affirmative defense that fails to meet any of these standards must be stricken.

Practice Tip #2: Defendant did not file a response to Malibu Media's motion to strike Defendant's affirmative defenses. For that reason alone, the court could have ruled on the motion summarily under the Northern District's Local Rule 7-1(d)(4).

Practice Tip #3: Even under the liberal notice pleading standards of the Federal Rules, an affirmative defense must include either direct or inferential allegations as to all elements of the defense asserted. Bare bones conclusory allegations are insufficient. Moreover, laches, waiver, estoppel, and unclean hands are equitable defenses that must be pled with the specific elements required to establish the defense.

Practice Tip #4: An implied license, which Defendant argued as an affirmative defense, arises when (1) a person (the licensee) requests the creation of a work, (2) the creator (the licensor) makes that particular work and delivers it to the licensee who requested it, and (3) the licensor intends that the licensee-requestor copy and distribute his work.

Practice Tip #5: This opinion demonstrates one of the pitfalls of pleading in the alternative. Defendant appears to have tried to argue that he didn't download the copyrighted material but that, if he had, it was with an implied license from Plaintiff. The court was not persuaded, however, as Defendant's Answer had denied downloading the copyrighted material with BitTorrent. As a result, Defendant was not permitted to argue also that he downloaded the copyrighted material using BitTorrent but that he had an implied license to do so.

A well-known example of such alternative pleading was demonstrated by Richard Haynes: "Say you sue me because you say my dog bit you. Well, now this is my defense: My dog doesn't bite. And second, in the alternative, my dog was tied up that night. And third, I don't believe you really got bit. And fourth, I don't have a dog."

Continue reading "Court Strikes Four Affirmative Defenses of BitTorrent Defendant" »

January 6, 2014

Joe Hand Promotions Sues for Unlawful Interception of Championship Fight

South Bend, Indiana - Joe Hand Promotions, Inc. of Feasterville, Pennsylvania, via a Kentucky intellectual property lawyer, has sued in the Northern District of Indiana alleging that Lee H. Holmes, individually and d/b/a Homer's Restaurant, both of Peru, Indiana, unlawfully Lesnar-Overeem-Picture.jpgintercepted and televised the Ultimate Fighting Championship 141:Brock Lesnar v. Alistar Overeem ("the Program").

Joe Hand Promotions, a commercial distributor of sporting events, states that it was granted exclusive rights to distribute via closed-circuit telecast the Ultimate Fighting Championship ("UFC") fight between Brock Lesnar and Alistar Overeem, which Joe Hand Promotions asserts was broadcast nationwide on December 30, 2011.

In the complaint against Holmes and Homer's Restaurant, Joe Hand Promotions has alleged such wrongful acts as interception, reception, publication, divulgence, display, exhibition, and "tortuously" [sic] converting the Program.

In addition to naming the restaurant, which was not listed as a separate legal entity, Joe Hand Promotions has also sued Holmes as an individual, claiming that he had the right and ability to supervise the activities of Homer's Restaurant. Joe Hand Promotions asserts that those activities included the unlawful interception of its UFC Program.

Holmes and Homer's Restaurant have been accused of violating 47 U.S.C. § 605 and 47 U.S.C. § 553. The complaint, filed by a Kentucky intellectual property attorney, also lists a count of conversion. Joe Hand Promotions seeks statutory damages of $110,000 for each willful violation of 47 U.S.C. § 605; $60,000 for each willful violation of 47 U.S.C. § 553; compensatory and punitive damages on the claim of conversion; costs, including costs incurred for the service of process and the investigation of potential wrongdoing; and attorney's fees.

Practice Tip #1: While on the surface this appears to be a copyright case, an allegation of interception under 47 U.S.C. § 605 is a different cause of action from copyright infringement. However, a suit alleging interception does not preclude an additional lawsuit asserting different causes of action. For example, the copyright holder can also sue for copyright infringement, which could increase damages by as much as $150,000.

Practice Tip #2: Most satellite signal providers employ encryption to limit receiption to certain groups, such as paying subscribers.  However, not all licenses grant equal rights.  for example, if an individual as a "residential" agreement with a satellite provider, that agreement does not also give that individual the right to display the performance in a public setting like a bar or restaurant..

Continue reading "Joe Hand Promotions Sues for Unlawful Interception of Championship Fight" »

January 3, 2014

160 Trademark Registrations Issued to Indiana Companies in December 2013

The U.S. Trademark Office issued the following 160 trademark registrations to persons and businesses in Indiana in December 2013 based on applications filed by Indiana trademark attorneys:

Reg. Number Word Mark Click to View
4456856 NATIONAL SPORTSMANSHIP FOUNDATION VIEW
4456683 BÉBÉCONFORT VIEW
4455046 WELCOME TO WORK VIEW
4455043 GESSO VIEW
4455007 CARDIOCHEK VIEW
4454629 KSIR VIEW
4454616 TOUCHLINE VIEW
4454595 SERVING HIGHER INTERESTS VIEW
4454431 SPLATTER SHOT VIEW
4454173 CO VIEW
4454024 OAKCREST CAPITAL VIEW
4453969 DON'T REPLACE IT, REGLAZE IT. VIEW
4453926 STATUSQUOSUCKS! VIEW
4453902 WAGGONER LEGAL ENGLISH LLC VIEW

Continue reading " 160 Trademark Registrations Issued to Indiana Companies in December 2013" »

January 2, 2014

Patent Office Issues 184 Patents To Indiana Citizens in December 2013

The U.S. Patent Office issued the following184 patent registrations to persons and businesses in Indiana in December 2013, based on applications filed by Indiana patent attorneys: 

Patent No.  Title
D696,781 Orthopaedic tool handle 
8,621,641 Systems and methods for authorization of information access 
8,620,625 Above bed sensor 
8,620,477 Control for pressurized bladder in a patient support apparatus 
8,618,954 Mobile FLOW readout and mobile FLOW sequencer features 
8,618,918 Patient support, communication, and computing apparatus including movement of the support and connection to the hospital network 
8,618,511 Marking method for the reject marking of test elements 
8,618,475 Ion mobility spectrometer with one or more integral ion activation regions 
8,618,444 Rotary door heater system 
8,618,293 Redox mediators 

Continue reading "Patent Office Issues 184 Patents To Indiana Citizens in December 2013" »

December 31, 2013

Vehicle Service Group Sues Mohawk Resources for Patent Infringement

New Albany, Indiana - Vehicle Services Group, LLC  of Madison, Indiana("VSG"), via anpatent-picture.png Indiana patent lawyer, has sued Mohawk Resources, LTD of Amsterdam, New York("Mohawk") alleging patent infringement of VSG's "Electronically Controlled Vehicle Lift and Vehicle Service System," Patent No. 6,983,196 (the "'196 patent"), which has been registered by the U.S. Patent Office.

VSG is a designer and manufacturer of vehicle lifts, such as those one might see lifting a car in an auto mechanic's shop. VSG's '196 patent relates to a vehicle lift that has an electronic control which is functional to control the raising and lowering of the lift and to enable the display of a variety of information.

Mohawk also makes vehicle lifts, and is a direct competitor of VSG in the marketplace. The lifts that are at issue in this case (the "Accused Lifts") include various Mohawk products. The complaint cites infringement by the Mobile Column Lifts identified as model numbers MP-18, MP-24 and MP-30. Those particular lifts purportedly incorporate the technology covered by VSG's '196 patent, and thus infringe that patent.

In addition to levying allegations of patent infringement, VSG also claims that Mohawk is actively and knowingly inducing infringement of at least claim 145 of the '196 patent by instructing third parties, such as customers, to network together the Accused Lifts. Finally, Mohawk is accused of knowingly contributing to the infringement by others of the '196 patent by making, using, offering for sale, and selling the Accused Lifts.

An Indiana patent attorney alleged the following on behalf of VSG in a civil action for patent infringement:

• Count I: Patent Infringement
• Count II: Inducing Infringement
• Count III: Contributory Infringement

VSG asserts that Mohawk's acts of infringement of the '196 patent have caused and will continue to cause VSG substantial and irreparable injury. It also contends that the infringing activities have been willful and asks the court for judgment as follows:

A. That Mohawk be found to infringe the '196 patent;
B. That Mohawk, its officers, agents, servants, employees and attorneys, and all persons in active concert with them, or any of them, be preliminarily and permanently enjoined from infringing the '196 patent;
C. That VSG be awarded damages adequate to compensate for Mohawk's infringement of the '196 patent;
D. That the Court deem this case to be exceptional; and
E. That VSG be awarded its attorneys' fees, expenses, and costs of this action.

Practice Tip: This is at least the second complaint filed by VSG in the Southern District of Indiana and assigned to Judge Sarah Evans Barker. A previous lawsuit, Vehicle Service Group, LLC v. Stertil-Koni USA, Inc., makes similar allegations of patent infringement.

Continue reading "Vehicle Service Group Sues Mohawk Resources for Patent Infringement" »

December 30, 2013

Draft of Secret Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Released by WikiLeaks

WikiLeaks recently released the entire Intellectual property Rights Chapter from the secret negotiated draft text of theTrans-Pacific Partnership ("TPP") Intellectual Property Rights Chapter. The TPP is the largest-everwikiLeaks.png economic treaty, encompassing nations representing more than 40 percent of the world's gross domestic product ("GDP"). The WikiLeaks release of the text came ahead of the decisive TPP Chief Negotiators summit in Salt Lake City, Utah. The chapter published by WikiLeaks is perhaps the most controversial chapter of the TPP due to its wide-ranging effects on medicines, publishers, internet services, civil liberties and biological patents. Significantly, the released text includes the negotiation positions and disagreements between all 12 prospective member states.

The TPP is the forerunner to the equally secret US-EU pact, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership ("TTIP"), for which President Obama initiated US-EU negotiations in January 2013. Together, the TPP and TTIP will cover more than 60 percent of global GDP. Both pacts exclude China.

Since the beginning of the TPP negotiations, the process of drafting and negotiating the treaty's chapters has been shrouded in an unprecedented level of secrecy. Access to drafts of the TPP chapters is shielded from the general public. Members of the U.S. Congress are able to view only selected portions of treaty-related documents in highly restrictive conditions and under strict supervision. It has been previously revealed that only three individuals in each TPP nation have access to the full text of the agreement, while 600 'trade advisors' - often lobbyists for large U.S. corporations - are granted privileged access to crucial sections of the treaty text.

The 95-page, 30,000-word Intellectual Property Chapter lays out provisions for instituting a far-reaching, transnational legal and enforcement regime, modifying or replacing existing laws in TPP member states. The Chapter's subsections include agreements relating to patents (who may produce goods or drugs), copyright (who may transmit information), trademarks (who may describe information or goods as authentic) and industrial design.

The longest section of the Chapter - "Enforcement" - is devoted to detailing new policing measures, with implications for individual rights, civil liberties, publishers, internet service providers and internet privacy, as well as for the creative, intellectual, biological and environmental commons. Particular measures proposed include supranational litigation tribunals to which sovereign national courts are expected to defer, but which have no human rights safeguards. The TPP Intellectual Property Chapter states that these courts can conduct hearings with secret evidence. The Intellectual Property Chapter also replicates many of the surveillance and enforcement provisions from the shelved Stop Online Piracy Act and Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement treaties.

The current TPP negotiation member states are the United States, Japan, Mexico, Canada, Australia, Malaysia, Chile, Singapore, Peru, Vietnam, New Zealand and Brunei.

Practice Tip:

According to WikiLeaks, the TPP negotiations are at a critical stage. WikiLeaks contends that the Obama administration is preparing to fast-track the TPP treaty in a manner that will prevent the U.S. Congress from discussing or amending any parts of the treaty. Numerous TPP heads of state and senior government figures, including President Obama, have declared their intention to sign and ratify the TPP before the end of 2013.

WikiLeaks' Editor-in-Chief Julian Assange stated: "The US administration is aggressively pushing the TPP through the US legislative process on the sly." The advanced draft of the Intellectual Property Rights Chapter, published by WikiLeaks on November 13, 2013 was designed to provide the public with an opportunity to familiarize themselves with the details and implications of the TPP.

The consolidated text obtained by WikiLeaks after the August 2013 TPP meeting in Brunei - unlike any other TPP-related documents previously released to the public - contains annotations detailing each country's positions on the issues under negotiation. Assange commented that a "cringingly obsequious" Australia is the nation most likely to support the hardline position of U.S. negotiators against other countries, while states including Vietnam, Chile and Malaysia are more likely to be in opposition. Numerous key Pacific Rim and nearby nations - including Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines and, most significantly, Russia and China - have not been involved in the drafting of the treaty.

According to Assange, "If instituted, the TPP's IP regime would trample over individual rights and free expression, as well as ride roughshod over the intellectual and creative commons. If you read, write, publish, think, listen, dance, sing or invent; if you farm or consume food; if you're ill now or might one day be ill, the TPP has you in its crosshairs."

December 27, 2013

Federal Circuit Rejects Broad Right of Public Access to Patent Trials

Washington, D.C. - The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit held that a showing of good cause was sufficient to support parties' requests to file documents under seal. The case was heard by Circuit Judges Sharon Prost, William C. Bryson and Kathleen O'Malley.

Courts have traditionally acknowledged a right of free access to patent information. Lately, however, judges have increasingly restricted the general public's access to patent litigation. The Federal Circuit spoke to this in the matter of Apple Inc. v. Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., which recently resulted in a new verdict for Apple, this time for $290 million.picture of the court.jpg

In the patent litigation that led to that verdict, the parties had agreed that certain documents were to be filed under seal. Judge Lucy H. Koh had rejected this agreement and instead had required that the parties provide "compelling reasons" for sealing documents. The parties appealed this ruling.

The Federal Circuit discussed the public-policy implications of shielding patent infringement trials from the public eye. It rejected the notion that general public interest in a trial involving patent litigation is sufficient to require that the briefs and evidence be made available to the public. Instead, the Federal Circuit held that the public's interest must be more than mere curiosity where the information at issue was not central to the court's decision on the merits of the case. It also held that the interests of the parties in maintaining the confidentiality of their information must be considered. The court wrote, "[w]hile protecting the public's interest in access to the courts, we must remain mindful of the parties' right to access those same courts upon terms which will not unduly harm their competitive interest."

The Federal Circuit reversed the district court, holding that a showing of "compelling reasons" was not the correct standard to apply when determining if parties should be allowed to file documents under seal. Instead, under the law, only a showing of "good cause" is required.

Practice Tip: This case is unusual in that it reached the appeals court. Typically, when patent attorneys for the parties agree to keep information secret, most district court judges are willing to allow evidence and briefs to be filed under seal. It is perhaps due to the considerable public interest in this case that Judge Koh declared before the trial that "the whole trial is going to be open."

Continue reading "Federal Circuit Rejects Broad Right of Public Access to Patent Trials " »

December 24, 2013

Innovations in Santa Detection Proliferate for Both National and Personal Uses

For over 50 years, the North American Aerospace Defense Command ("NORAD") and itspicture-1.bmp predecessor, the Continental Air Defense Command, have tracked Santa's flight around the world. Their high-technology approach includes not only radar and satellites in geo-synchronous orbit but also the recent additions of strategically placed SantaCams and jet pilots flying F-15s, F-16s and F-22s to escort Santa as he delivers presents to children on the "nice" list worldwide.

However, as technologically advanced as NORAD's equipment is, it lacks the precision that some children desire. It is, after all, one thing to know that Santa is in your city. It is another thing entirely to receive notification of Santa's arrival in your house.

As a result, even as NORAD finalizes this year's preparations to track Santa, enterprising children have turned to some recent innovations to fill this gap. Among them is the "Santa Claus Detector," U.S. Patent No. 5,523,741. This invention includes a pin in the toe of the Christmas stocking, as illustrated in Figures 2 and 4.

After this stocking is hung by the chimney with care, the pin in the stocking is attached with a cord to another decoration hung on the other side of the chimney. This configuration would result in a layout similar to the following:

picture-2.bmpWhen Santa enters the house to deliver presents, he will walk through the cord. In doing so, he will pull the pin from the stocking. That, in turn, will break the electrical circuit in the stocking which will cause the stocking to emit auditory and visual alarms, thus announcing the arrival of Santa.

Practice Tip #1: Children considering employing this device may wish to consider the possibility that the implementation of such Santa-detection measures may result in a removal from the "nice" list.

Practice Tip #2: From everyone at Overhauser Law Offices, we wish you happy holidays!

December 23, 2013

CleanTech Adds Three Additional Defendants to Multidistrict Litigation

Indianapolis, Indiana - GS CleanTech Corporation of Alpharetta, Georgia ("CleanTech") has filed complaints against three new Defendants in its ongoing multidistrict litigation in which it asserts infringement of its patented corn-oil-extraction technology. Patent lawyers for gas_pump1.jpgCleanTech sued Homeland Energy Solutions, LLC of Lawler, Iowa ("Homeland") in the Northern District of Iowa. Pacific Ethanol, Inc. of Sacramento, California ("Pacific") was sued in the Eastern District of California. Guardian Energy, LLC of Janesville, Minnesota ("Guardian") was sued in the District of Minnesota. At issue in this litigation are the following: Patent Nos. 7,601,858, Method of Processing Ethanol Byproducts and Related Subsystems; 8,008,516, Method of Processing Ethanol Byproducts and Related Subsystems; 8,008,517, Method of Recovering Oil from Thin Stillage; 8,283,484, Method of Processing Ethanol Byproducts and Related Subsystems; and 8,168,037, Method and Systems for Enhancing Oil Recovery from Ethanol Production Byproducts, which have been issued by the U.S. Patent Office. The cases were transferred to Southern District of Indiana as part of Multidistrict Litigation No. 2181.

This Multidistrict Litigation ("MDL") began with an assertion of patent infringement by CleanTech of Patent No. 7,601,858 (the "'858 patent"), which was issued on October 13, 2009. CleanTech sued numerous Defendants alleging infringement of that patent shortly after its issuance. The Defendants accused of patent infringement in prior litigation include: Big River Resources Galva, LLC; Big River Resources West Burlington, LLC; Cardinal Ethanol, LLC; ICM, Inc.; LincolnLand Agri-Energy, LLC; David J. Vander Griend; Iroquois Bio-Energy Co., LLC; Al-Corn Clean Fuel; Blue Flint Ethanol, LLC; ACE Ethanol, LLC; Lincolnway Energy, LLC; United Wisconsin Grain Producers, LLC; Bushmills Ethanol, Inc.; Chippewa Valley Ethanol Co.; Heartland Corn Products; Adkins Energy, LLC; Little Sioux Corn Processors, LLLP; Little Sioux Corn Processors, LLLP and Western New York Energy, LLC.

Since September 29, 2011, when the court overseeing the MDL issued its order on claim construction with respect to the disputed claims of the '858 patent, patentee CleanTech has further asserted infringement by some of the allegedly infringing Defendants of four additional patents in the '858 patent family: U.S. Patent Nos. 8,008,516 (the "'516 patent"), 8,008,517 (the "'517 patent"), 8,283,484 (the "'484 patent") and, the newest addition, 8,168,037 ("the '037 patent"), (the '858, '516, '517, '484, '037 patents are, collectively, the "'858 patent family" or "the patents-in-suit").

CleanTech claims that the method claimed increases the efficiency and economy of recovering corn oil. CleanTech's patented methods recover corn oil by evaporating, concentrating and mechanically separating thin stillage ("stillage"), a byproduct of ethanol produced from corn, into two components: corn oil and a post-recovery syrup ("syrup") with most of its corn oil removed.

In one embodiment, the patented method comprises initially processing the whole stillage by mechanically separating (such as by using a centrifugal decanter) the whole stillage into distillers wet grains and thin stillage, and then introducing the thin stillage into an evaporator to form a concentrated syrup byproduct. Prior to recombining the then-concentrated syrup with the distillers wet grains, the syrup is introduced into a second mechanical separator, such as a second centrifuge, which is different from the centrifuge that mechanically separated the whole stillage into distillers wet grains and thin stillage. This second centrifuge separates corn oil from the syrup thereby allowing for the recovery of usable corn oil. The syrup that exits the centrifuge is then recombined with the distillers wet grain and dried in a dryer. The corn oil that is extracted from the syrup can be used for various purposes such as feedstock for producing biodiesel.

Patent attorneys for CleanTech have made different claims against the three new Defendants. All of the patents-in-suit - the '858 patent, the '516 patent, the '517 patent, the '484 patent, and the '037 patent - have purportedly been infringed by Homeland. Guardian has been accused of having infringed four of the five patents-in-suit: the '858 patent, the '516 patent, the '517 patent and the '484 patent. One claim of patent infringement, regarding the '858 patent, has been asserted against Pacific.

Practice Tip: Multi-district litigation affords consistency and judicial economy, as well as allowing plaintiffs and defendants to concentrate their efforts in one forum. However, lawsuits that are not settled before trial must later be remanded to the transferring court and to a judge who has had little opportunity to become familiar with the issues.

Continue reading "CleanTech Adds Three Additional Defendants to Multidistrict Litigation" »

December 20, 2013

Indiana University Sues AngioDynamics for Patent Infringement

Indianapolis, Indiana - Patent attorneys for Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation ("IURTC") of Indianapolis, Indiana sued in the Southern District of Indiana alleging that AngioDynamics, Inc. of Latham, New York infringed Patent No. 6,719,717, which has been registered with the United States Patent and Trademark Office ("USPTO"). This Indiana patent has a publication date of April 13, 2004.

patent-picture.bmpIURTC is a not-for-profit corporation that fosters collaboration between Indiana University faculty and researchers and private industry through the licensing of technology. IURTC states that its goals include acting as a resource for researchers, for industry and for Indiana.

AngioDynamics was founded in 1988. It seeks to provide benefits to patients through the designing, developing, manufacturing and marketing of innovative therapeutic devices used by interventionalists and surgeons for the minimally invasive treatment of peripheral vascular disease, tumor therapy and other, non-vascular disease.

IURTC, via its patent attorneys, is suing AngioDynamics for patent infringement under 35 U.S.C. § 101, et seq. The patent at issue is Patent No. 6,719,717 (the "'717 Patent"), which relates to thrombectomy treatment systems and methods. IURTC states that, by assignment, it is the current owner of all rights, title, and interests in the '717 Patent, including the right to enforce the patent.

The products accused of infringing IURTC's patent (the "Accused Products") are allegedly manufactured by Vortex Medical, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of AngioDynamics. IURTC contends that AngioDynamics has made and/or currently imports, sells, offers to sell, and/or uses the Accused Products. It also asserts that AngioDynamics provides instructions and directions on how to use the Accused Products to doctors, and other medical personnel.

IURTC further claims that AngioDynamics has known of the '717 Patent since at least the date of its issuance by the USPTO. It contends that, as a result, AngioDynamics' infringement of the '717 Patent has been and continues to be willful and deliberate.

Patent lawyers for IURTC filed a complaint alleging a single count of patent infringement. The complaint contends that AngioDynamics is currently infringing and has infringed the '717 Patent directly by, without authority, having made and/or currently importing into the United States, and/or using, selling, and/or offering for sale the Accused Products, which embody the inventions claimed in the '717 Patent. It also claims that AngioDynamics is actively, intentionally, and/or knowingly inducing infringement of the '717 Patent by others, including doctors,and other medical professionals, and is thus liable to IURTC pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 271(b).

IURTC has asked that the court enter judgment:

A. Finding that U.S. Patent No. 6,719,717 is valid, enforceable, and infringed by AngioDynamics, and that AngioDynamics is liable for inducement of infringement and contributory infringement of the '717 Patent;
B. Entering a permanent injunction against AngioDynamics, enjoining it, its respective directors, officers, agents, employees, successors, subsidiaries, assigns, and all persons acting in privity or in concert or participation with AngioDynamics from making, using, selling, or offering for sale in the United States, or importing into the United States, any and all products and/or services embodying the patented inventions claimed in the '717 Patent;
C. Holding that AngioDynamics acted willfully in causing damage to IURTC;
D. Awarding IURTC such damages to which it is entitled, pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 284;
E. Awarding IURTC enhanced damages, pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 284;
F. Awarding IURTC pre-judgment and post-judgment interest as allowed by law; and
G. Awarding IURTC its costs, expenses, and fees, including reasonable attorneys' fees, pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 285.

Practice Tip:

Universities today often own sizeable portfolios of patents and can earn substantial royalties from licensing those patents. To maintain that revenue, most universities seek ownership of the inventions created by their employees, typically by having the employee assign the intellectual property rights to the university. Moreover, if federal funds were used to pursue the research leading to the invention, universities are required under the Bayh-Dole Act to obtain ownership of the resulting patent.

Substantial legal difficulty can arise when the ownership of a patent is unclear. Such a problem can arise when the duty of an inventor to convey ownership of his or her invention has not been established in advance of the creation of new intellectual property. An Indiana patent attorney can help Indiana inventors determine what rights they have with respect to their inventions.

Continue reading "Indiana University Sues AngioDynamics for Patent Infringement" »

December 19, 2013

Former Google Executive Michelle K. Lee Named as Next Deputy Director of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

WASHINGTON, D.C. - U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker recently announced the appointment of Michelle K. Lee as the next Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Deputy Director of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("USPTO"). Lee currently serves as the Director of the USPTO's Silicon Valley satellite office and will begin her new role at USPTO headquarters in Alexandria, Virginia on January 13, 2014.

photo-google.bmpWhile Director of the USPTO's Silicon Valley satellite office, Lee has served as the agency's primary liaison with the innovation community in the Silicon Valley and West Coast, leading the establishment of a temporary office in Menlo Park and working creatively with California's Congressional, state, and local leadership to successfully secure a permanent office location in San Jose. In that role, she has also been actively engaged in education and outreach initiatives, empowering the USPTO to more effectively develop programs, policies, and procedures to meet the needs of the West Coast innovation community. Beyond the Silicon Valley office, Lee has also played a broader role in helping shape key policy matters impacting the nation's intellectual property (IP) system, focusing closely on efforts to continually strengthen patent quality, as well as curbing abusive patent litigation. Prior to becoming Director of the Silicon Valley USPTO, Lee served two terms on the USPTO's Patent Public Advisory Committee, whose members are appointed by the U.S. Commerce Secretary and serve to advise the USPTO on its policies, goals, performance, budget and user fees.

"Michelle Lee has proven herself to be a tremendous asset to the USPTO and the Department of Commerce," said Secretary Penny Pritzker. "She has a great mix of skills and experiences to assume this leadership position during a time when the administration is deeply focused on strengthening the nation's intellectual property system. And her years of working in the IP community, both in the private and public sectors, will support the key focus on innovation and the digital economy in the Commerce Department's new 'Open for Business' policy agenda. I look forward to working with her in her new capacity."

An engineer and patent attorney by training, Lee has developed a distinguished career over the past 25 years focused on various key facets of patent law, technology, and innovation policy in private practice, industry, and the executive and judicial branches of the federal government. Prior to joining the USPTO, Lee served as Deputy General Counsel for Google and was the company's first Head of Patents and Patent Strategy. As a patent lawyer, she also served as a partner at the Silicon Valley-based law firm of Fenwick & West, where she specialized in advising a wide range of high-technology clients from start-ups to Fortune 100 companies on all aspects of patent law, intellectual property, litigation and corporate matters. Prior to her career as a legal advisor to technology companies, Lee worked in the federal judiciary, serving as a law clerk for the Honorable Vaughn R. Walker on the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California and the Honorable Paul R. Michel on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Before building her legal career, Lee worked as a computer scientist at Hewlett-Packard Research Laboratories, as well as at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ("M.I.T.") Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. She holds a B.S. and an M.S. in electrical engineering and computer science from M.I.T., as well as a J.D. from Stanford Law School.

"I have truly valued my years working with the USPTO, both on the Patent Public Advisory Committee and more recently helping to build a robust USPTO office in the Silicon Valley," Lee said. "One of the best parts of my experience has been working with the talented and hard-working women and men at the USPTO. In my new role, I'm excited to further my service to the agency, the Commerce Department, and the American innovation community."

Upon assuming her role as USPTO Deputy Director, Lee will perform the functions and duties of the USPTO Director, a position that is currently vacant. In accordance with statutory law, she will assume the title of "Acting Director" once President Obama nominates a Director.

After Lee begins her new role in January, John Cabeca, a 25-year veteran of the USPTO, will serve as the Director of the Silicon Valley satellite office until the permanent office in San Jose City Hall becomes operational. Cabeca is currently the Senior Advisor to the Under Secretary for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTO and a former Semiconductor Technology Center Director. In addition to seeing the office through its build-out and hiring, Cabeca will focus on continuing the strong education and outreach initiatives by assembling a public engagement team that will guide educational programs tailored to the Silicon Valley's unique ecosystem of industries and stakeholders.

December 18, 2013

J & J Sports Sues Cancun Mexican Grill and Its Owner Alleging Illegal Interception

Fort Wayne, Indiana - J & J Sports Productions, Inc. of Campbell, California ("J & J Sports"), via a complaint filed by its intellectual property lawyer, has sued in the Northern District of Indiana alleging that Christine Kotsopoulos, purportedly a managing member of Geo-Joe, LLP, which owns and operates Cancun Mexican Grill, all of Fort Wayne, Indiana, unlawfully intercepted and broadcast "Good v. Evil": Miguel Angel Cotto v. Antonio Margaritio, WBA Super World Light Middleweight Championship Fight Program (the "Program") telecast on December 3, 2011.

sub_banner.jpgJ & J Sports states that it is the exclusive domestic commercial distributor of the Program. It has sued Geo-Joe, as well as Christine Kotsopoulos as an individual, under the Communications Act of 1934 and The Cable & Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992.

Specifically, Defendants have been accused of violating 47 U.S.C. § 605 and 47 U.S.C. § 553 by displaying the program on December 3, 2011 without a commercial license. Regarding the claim under 47 U.S.C. § 605, the complaint alleges that with "full knowledge that the Program was not to be intercepted, received, published, divulged, displayed, and/or exhibited by commercial entities unauthorized to do so, each and every one of the above named Defendants . . . did unlawfully intercept, receive, publish, divulge, display, and/or exhibit the Program" for the purpose of commercial advantage and/or private financial gain.

A count of conversion is also included. It asserts that Defendants' acts were "willful, malicious, egregious, and intentionally designed to harm Plaintiff J & J Sports" and that, as a result of being deprived of their commercial license fee, J & J Sports suffered "severe economic distress and great financial loss."

In addition to naming the separate legal entity, Geo-Joe, which apparently owns the restaurant, Plaintiff has also sued Kotsopoulos alleging that she had the right and ability to supervise the activities of Cancun Mexican Restaurant. J & J Sports asserts that the activities that she supervised included the unlawful interception of Plaintiff's program. J & J Sports contends that Kotsopoulos specifically directed the employees of Cancun Mexican Restaurant to unlawfully intercept and broadcast Plaintiff's program at Cancun Mexican Restaurant or, if she did not, that the actions of the employees of Cancun Mexican Restaurant are directly imputable to Kotsopoulos by virtue of her purported responsibility for the activities of the restaurant.

Kotsopoulos has also been named individually as a result of J & J Sports' contention that she is a managing member of Geo-Joe. J & J Sports further asserts that Kotsopoulos, as an individual specifically identified on the liquor license for Cancun Mexican Restaurant, had an obvious and direct financial interest in the activities of Cancun Mexican Restaurant.

In the complaint, the intellectual property attorney for J & J Sports listed the following counts and requests for redress:

•Count I: Violation of Title 47 U.S.C. § 605. For this count, J & J Sports requests (a) statutory damages for each willful violation in an amount to $100,000.00 pursuant to Title 47 U.S.C. 605(e)(3)(C)(ii), and (b) the recovery of full costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, pursuant to Title 47 U.S.C. § 605(e)(3)(B)(iii).

•Count II: Violation of Title 47 U.S.C. § 553. For this count, J & J Sports asks the court for (a) statutory damages for each violation in an amount to $10,000.00 pursuant to Title 47 U.S.C. § 553(c)(3)(A)(ii); (b) statutory damages for each willful violation in an amount to $50,000.00 pursuant to Title 47 U.S.C. § 553(c)(3)(B); (c) the recovery of full costs pursuant to Title 47 U.S.C. § 553 (c)(2)(C); and (d) and in the discretion of the court, reasonable attorneys' fees, pursuant to Title 47 U.S.C. § 553 (c)(2)(C).

•Count III: Conversion. For this count, the court is requested to order both compensatory and punitive damages from Defendants as the result of the Defendants' allegedly egregious conduct, theft, and conversion of the program and deliberate injury to J & J Sports.

Practice Tip #1: The interception claim has a two-year statute of limitations, which explains why this complaint was filed on December 2, 2013 almost exactly two years after the broadcast of the Program. J & J Sports initiated 708 lawsuits in 2011 alone. It appears that many of them were also filed near the eve of the two-year anniversary of the broadcast of the program at issue in each individual lawsuit.

Practice Tip #2: J & J Sports has sued two entities: a limited liability company and an individual who is apparently a principal in that company. While limited liability companies are intended, as the name suggests, to limit the liability of the principals, they are not always successful in doing so. Where a principal is personally involved in certain types of illegal activity, legal mechanisms (such as a limited liability company) that are designed to shield the principal from liability may fail to do so.

Overhauser Law Offices, the publisher of this website, has represented several hundred persons and businesses accused of infringing satellite signals.

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December 16, 2013

Cummins Alleges Trademark Infringement and Counterfeiting in Lawsuit

Indianapolis, Indiana - Cummins Inc. of Columbus, Indiana has sued in the Southern District of Indiana alleging counterfeiting, trademark infringement and trademark dilution by T'Shirt Factory of Greenwood, Indiana; Freedom Custom Z of Bloomington, Indiana; Shamir Harutyunyan of Panama City Beach, Florida and Doe Defendants 1 - 10. Defendants are accused of infringing various trademarks, including those protected by Trademark Registration Nos. 4,103,161 and 1,090,272, which have been registered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Cummins was founded nearly a century ago and is a global power leader with complementary business units that design, manufacture, distribute and service engines and related Cummins-word-mark.jpgtechnologies, including fuel systems, controls, air handling, filtration, emission solutions and electrical power generation systems. Cummins employs approximately 46,000 people worldwide and serves customers in approximately 190 countries.

Defendants include T'Shirt Factory and Shamir Harutyunyan, who is alleged to be an owner, agent, and/or officer of T'Shirt Factory. Cummins claims that Harutyunyan was personally aware of, and authorized and/or participated in, the wrongful conduct alleged in Cummins' complaint. Freedom Custom Z is also named as a Defendant. Its business purportedly includes the sale of t-shirts, sweatshirts and other apparel upon which logos have been printed or affixed. Doe Defendants 1 - 10, the identities of whom are currently unknown, have also been accused of the illegal acts alleged.

Cummins states that it owns and maintains hundreds of trademark registrations worldwide covering a broad spectrum of goods and services. Among those is Trademark Registration No. 4,126,680, which covers the following goods: "Men's and women's clothing, namely, sweatshirts, hooded sweatshirts, aprons, shirts, sport shirts, jackets, t-shirts, polo shirts, baseball caps and hats, ski caps, fleece caps, headbands, scarves, quilted vests, coveralls, leather jackets, t-shirts for toddlers and children" in International Class 25.

Cummins also asserts that it owns Trademark Registration No. 4,103,161. It indicates that this trademark registration covers the following goods: "Men's and women's clothing, namely, sweatshirts, hooded sweatshirts, aprons, shirts, sport shirts, jackets, t-shirts, polo shirts, baseball caps and hats, ski caps, fleece caps, headbands, scarves, quilted vests, coveralls, leather jackets, t-shirts for toddlers and children" in International Class 25. Cummins also states that it owns Trademark Registration No. 4,305,797, registered for similar goods.

Finally, Cummins claims Trademark Registration Nos. 579,346; 1,090,272 and 1,124,765, which also relate to the Cummins Mark, as its intellectual property.

In December 2013, Cummins employees observed apparel bearing the Cummins Marks offered for sale at kiosks located in the College Mall in Bloomington, Indiana; in the Greenwood Park Mall in Greenwood, Indiana; and in the Castleton Mall in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Trademark lawyers for Cummins have sued in the Southern District of Indiana. Cummins accuses Defendants of having acted intentionally, willfully and maliciously. It makes the following claims in its complaint:

• Count I: Trademark Infringement Under Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a)
• Count II: Trademark Dilution Under Section 43(c) of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1125(c)
• Count III: Trademark Counterfeiting Under Section 32(1) of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1114(1)

Cummins asks 1) for a temporary restraining order allowing inspection and seizure of the accused goods as well as enjoining Defendants from, inter alia, manufacturing or selling items bearing counterfeit Cummins Marks; 2) for preliminary and permanent injunctions prohibiting Defendants from, inter alia, manufacturing or selling items bearing counterfeit Cummins Marks; and 3) that the court order the destruction of all unauthorized goods.

It also asks the court to find that the Defendants 1) have infringed Cummins' trademarks in violation of 15 U.S.C. § 1114; 2) have created a false designation of origin and false representation of association in violation of 15 U.S.C. § 1125(a); 3) have diluted Cummins' famous trademarks in violation of 15 U.S.C. § 1125(c) and 4) have willfully infringed.

Cummins asks for Defendants' profits from the sales of the infringing and counterfeit goods bearing the Cummins Marks; treble actual damages, costs, reasonable attorneys' fees as well as pre-judgment and post-judgment interest.

Practice Tip: Repercussions for counterfeiting are not limited to the damages that can be awarded for civil wrongdoing. Increasingly, defendants who engage in counterfeiting, especially counterfeiting on a large scale or during high-profile events, can find themselves facing criminal charges (see, e.g., an arrest made on allegations of counterfeiting during Super Bowl XLVI) in addition to being sued by the owner of the trademark.

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